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The Wikirate platform enables university students and the general public to access the statements and answer a series of questions assessing whether the statements meet the requirements of the Act (signed by a board member, approved by the board and hosted on the company homepage) and if they detail policies that enable the business to better respond to modern slavery. As these fees did not include the worker’s travel and setup fees, many of the workers reported having to borrow large sums from banks or family members in the Philippines to be able to migrate to Canada.12 Due to persistent allegations of exploitation of live-in caregivers, the program was overhauled in 2014, resulting in the removal of the live-in requirement, in addition to the announcement that the government would no longer accept applications that were received on or after 30 November 2014.13 However, allegations of exploitation continue among those already employed through the LCP.14, Trafficking within Canada for the purpose of sexual exploitation, primarily involving Canadian citizens as victims, is reported to be the most common form of modern slavery detected by authorities.15 In fact, 93 percent of identified sex trafficking victims are Canadian citizens, not foreign citizens.16 It must be emphasised that these figures do not necessarily reflect the small numbers of foreign nationals being subject to exploitation in Canada, but rather, they are a reflection of the numerous reasons foreign victims do not report to authorities, such as being tied to their employer through their visa while trying to get permanent residence, or fear of deportation.17 This is in addition to the many reasons victims in general do not come forward, such as threats or a dependent relationship with their exploiters, among others. Thirty-three years ago, historian James Walker rightfully pointed out in his A History of Blacks in Canada: a Study Guide for Teachers and Students that “[w]e cannot understand early pioneer history unless we acknowledge that slavery existed”. Specific examples include working without pay, performing tasks outside the scope of the employment contract, not receiving vacation or overtime pay, working extremely long hours, deduction of “fees” for food or accommodation from pay cheques, and particularly for women, sexual violence. In 1833 Parliament passed a further act to abolish slavery in the British West Indies, Canada and the Cape of Good Hope (southern Africa), meaning that it was now illegal to buy or own a person. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. Afua Cooper is James Robinson Johnston Chair in Black Canadian Studies at Dalhousie University. ​** This episode was produced by Mary Lynk. Provincial health insurance is often denied as such insurance relies on a valid work permit.48 There have also been reported cases of female migrant workers hiding their pregnancy for fear of losing their employment status and being deported.49, Although care workers on the LCP were granted the right to live outside their employer’s home as part of the changes to the LCP program in 2014, workers under the program may still be vulnerable to exploitation. The Global Slavery Index estimates that on any given day in 2016 there were 17,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in Canada, a prevalence of 0.5 victims for every thousand people in the country. The Modern Slavery Act shone a spotlight on the issue of modern slavery and human trafficking when it was written into UK law two years ago. Closed Captioning and Described Video is available for many CBC shows offered on CBC Gem. These findings indicate that the majority of identified forced marriage victims are of a very young age.23 The report also revealed that most victims were born overseas, coming from over 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America, while 22 victims were Canadian citizens. Available from: Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of, https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research, https://www.canada.ca/en/services/immigration-citizenship.html, https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/services/foreign-workers/reports/2014/lmia-annual-statistics/agricultural.html. The statements analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Project were the most recently available statements at the time the research was conducted – in most cases, this would be the 2016 statement. Migrant workers from Jamaica prepare to sort beets. 77. Public Works and Government Services Canada 2017. For more information on the Nevsun case, please see: Yapp, S 2018, The Nevsun Effect: A New Era of Corporate Responsibility, Walk Free Foundation Insight Series 02. The largest sectors represented are the banking sector (5) and software and services (4), followed by consumer durables and apparel (2). Slavery's long shadow: The impact of 200 years enslavement in Canada. It also played a part in Canadian history. "What slavery did in Canada was it made [the concept of] race," she says. To date, over 400 statements have been assessed by university students at Columbia University, ESCP Europe Business School, Johns Hopkins University, University of Nottingham, and the University of Western Australia. In Part 2 of his series on slavery in colonial Canada, Kyle G. Brown explores the long-lasting ramifications of one of humanity’s most iniquitous institutions. While there were no cotton fields or sugar plantations in Canada, the treatment of slaves was no better than elsewhere. The data is taken from the BACI 2015 dataset (available from: http://www.cepii.fr/cepii/en/bdd_modele/presentation.asp?id=1). Lovejoy also discounts comparisons with slavery in the Americas, and considers indigenous African slavery had only a limited impact on the development of the Atlantic trade. A number of measures cast this inequality into sharp relief. Ensure more effective investigations and prosecutions of modern slavery crimes by removing any barriers that prevent federal law enforcement from collecting sufficient evidence, such as jurisdictional constraints. Some historians trace this pattern back to slavery and segregation. The first of these mile… ", "So we're still subjected to a heightened surveillance on the basis of our race, and where does that come from? The new code could be used as a tool to help Canada meets its international commitments, such as ILO conventions and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, and address concerns regarding child and forced labour, human trafficking, and unsafe employment practices.67 PSPC has reportedly begun the drafting process for a new Code based on recommendations and other feedback,68 however it is currently unclear how this is progressing. In 2017, foreign workers who claim they paid thousands of dollars to obtain non-existent jobs at Mac’s convenience stores had their claims certified as a class action lawsuit in the Supreme Court of British Columbia.6 The four workers named in the suit allege they paid up to US$8,500 each in illegal fees to Surrey-based immigration consultant firms to obtain jobs as temporary foreign workers in Western Canada, but upon arrival in Canada discovered there was no job awaiting them.7, The SAWP was designed in the 1960s to fill Canada’s labour shortage for seasonal agricultural labour and allows Canadian farm businesses to hire workers from Mexico and several Caribbean countries on temporary visas during harvesting season.8 In 2015, over 40,000 migrant workers were employed in Canada through the SAWP.9 In 2016, the death of a SAWP migrant farm worker from Jamaica caused public outcry, revealing that many SAWP migrant workers are working under exploitative conditions and are often not appropriately treated following injury.10 A 2014 study reports that during 2001 and 2011, 787 repatriations occurred among 170,315 migrant farm workers arriving in Ontario. At the time, indigenous people … Continuing impact of slavery past and present L e t t e r s Howard Temperley , Gary Craig , Peter Malpass , Amanda Norrie and Margaret Vandacasteele examine the evidence The Global Slavery Index (GSI) is a study of modern slavery published by the Australian-based, Walk Free initiative — a human rights organisation that works towards ending slavery around the globe. Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted. The plaintiffs allege that they were conscripted by the Eritrean government under their ‘National Service Program’ and forced to build the mine under conditions of modern slavery.86 Therefore, the plaintiffs claim that Nevsun Resources was complicit in and profited from crimes of modern slavery by using forced labour to build the Bisha Mine in Eritrea. [15, https://knowthechain.org/wp-content/uploads/KTC-SugarcaneReport-Final_August-2017.pdf, http://dx.doi.org/10.14217/9781848599451-en, https://www.uclalawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Bourgeois-final_8.15.pdf, http://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/HUMA/Brief/BR8374833/br-external/MigrantWorkerSolidarityNetwork-e.pdf. ( See also Underground Railroad.) The CORE will be mandated to investigate allegations of human rights abuses linked to Canadian corporate activity abroad and will have the power to independently investigate, report, recommend, and remediate, as well as to monitor implementation of the remedies it imposes. Techniques used by traffickers include building dependence by buying gifts and posing as boyfriends.32 Younger male members of street gangs simulate affection as a tool to recruit young women.33 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) also identify young people and individuals already working in sex industries to be most vulnerable to modern slavery.34, Marginalised and disadvantaged communities are reportedly more vulnerable to forced sexual exploitation, including women from Indigenous communities, young women and girls, migrants, and children in protection services.35 According to a 2014 survey of 266 Canadian front-line response organisations conducted by the Canadian Women’s Foundation, 51 percent of trafficked girls had been in the child welfare system and 51 percent of trafficked women and girls were Indigenous. Orkin, A M, Lay, M, McLaughlin, J, Schwandt, M & Cole, D 2014. Part of Walk Free’s approach is to periodically publish the study, which as of 2018 states that over 40 million people across the globe live in modern slavery. Although the dominant mode of slavery for the final 40 years of slavery in Canada was African (as American settlers brought their African slaves with them into the present-day Maritimes, Ontario and Quebecafter 1783), Indigenous slaves made up two-thirds of the slaves in Canada over the course of about 150 years. For the first time, the topic of enslavement has been included in the 2013 revised Ontario Social Studies, History, and Geography curriculum. Although the merits of the claim have not yet been heard, this case highlights an increasing global trend for foreign courts to hold companies accountable for human rights abuses.87. The United Nations has sounded the alarm on anti-Black racism in Canada, stating it can be traced back to slavery and its legacy. Criminalise forced labour as a distinct offence in the criminal code, in line with international definitions. Ministry of Community and Social Services 2016. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 2017. "11, Migrant workers who previously entered Canada under the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Exchange rates as at 17 April 2018: US$1=Can$1.25737. Of these 455 cases, 433 cases were domestic trafficking cases where Canadian or foreign citizens were exploited within Canada, primarily for the purpose of sexual exploitation. In November 2017, PSPC also began seeking input from apparel suppliers to develop guidelines for the ethical procurement of apparel.69 As part of the request, suppliers selling apparel to the federal government will have to self-certify that their direct Canadian and foreign suppliers comply with local laws and international labour rights and human rights standards, such as forced labour and access to fair wages and safe working conditions. Table 1 below highlights the top five products (according to US$ value, per annum) imported by Canada which are at risk of being produced under conditions of modern slavery.26, Canada imports more than US$7.6 billion of laptops, computers, and mobile phones from China and Malaysia – the industries of both of these countries are considered at risk of using modern slavery in the production of these goods. In fact, Canada currently has no specific modern slavery disclosure or supply chain transparency legislation. First, a quick reminder of the Act itself and the scale of the issue it seeks to address. In Canada, forced labour exploitation affects migrant workers, particularly those migrating to Canada under the ‘low-skilled’ temporary visa streams of the Temporary Foreign Workers Program (TFWP), including the low-wage and primary agricultural streams,2 the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP), and the Live-In Caregiver program (LCP).3 Although the Canadian government ceased accepting any new applications for the LCP from 30 November 2014, there are still many migrants working as caregivers who entered Canada under the former LCP stream. Box 500 Station A Toronto, ON Canada, M5W 1E6. See for example: World Vision Canada 2015. According to data on identified cases, modern slavery takes place largely for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation in Canada; women represent the majority of identified victims.31 The majority of sex trafficking victims are reportedly Canadian-born teenage girls, some as young as 13, who are recruited in various ways, including at school, through social media, and at shopping malls. PSPC also announced it will meet with suppliers, industry associations and other stakeholders in the apparel industry to discuss current practices on ethical manufacturing and sourcing throughout their supply chains.70 The government of Canada, through PSPC, reportedly has active contracts for the procurement of apparel totalling more than Can$640 million (US$509 million71).72, In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation and WikiRate73 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act.74 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery.75 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry.76. The Global Slavery Index. It also notes that the NAP has made a limited contribution to the investigation and prosecution of trafficking crimes due to a range of external factors, such as jurisdictional constraint and the difficulty of collecting sufficient evidence for the prosecution, which limits the ability of federal law enforcement agencies to conduct such investigations.61 A new NAP had not yet been published at the time of writing. slavery; and • The differential impact of trafficking and slavery on different groups demarcated by (but not limited to) age, gender, ethnicity, national origins, religion, sexual orientation or practice. Of those analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Research project on the Wikirate platform, statements by Bank of Montreal78 and Estee Lauder Cosmetics79 are among those that include details on policies and due diligence processes that apply to their own business and are signed by a director/chairman and approved by the board. ’16-year-old boy charged with sex trafficking of Edmonton girl’ 2018. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade. Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre 2017. On the Pro-Slavery (Canuck) Unconscious: A Sestina Denouncing Continued Oppression, 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group, Historian Gregory Wigmore on a dark, little-known chapter of Canada's past, Slavery's long destructive history by Gary Pieters, Over-policing in black communities is a Canadian crisis, too, The Canadian Narrative about Slavery Is Wrong, Demanding reparations for slavery: Canadian organizing within a global struggle, Who's the woman on Canada's new $10 bill? Canadaim Global Immigration and Law Firm 2017. However, loyalist slave owners who immigrated to Canada at the same time were allowed to bring their slaves with them. Here is his poem On the Pro-Slavery (Canuck) Unconscious: A Sestina Denouncing Continued Oppression. Canadian governments have issued apologies and compensation to LGBTQ communities, victims of Japanese internment and families affected by the Chinese head tax. Historian Afua Cooper talks about what it's like to be black in Canada today and always under surveillance. In 1793 Upper Canada (now Ontario) passed the Anti‐slavery Act. The image of Canada as a safe haven for enslaved African Americans was born, and thousands of fugitives and free Blacks would arrive on Canadian soil between 1834 and the early 1860s. Comments are welcome while open. It existed both under the French and the English. Policy-makers, businesses, and consumers must become aware of this risk and take responsibility for it. Research conducted in 2012 and 2013 found that workers in the illegal gold mining industry in Peru find themselves trapped in debt-bondage like situations where they have to pay off excessive debts to recruiters and are threatened when they attempt to leave the mines.27 Fish is another product of significant import value that may be at risk of modern slavery. Ensure there is dedicated and adequate funding for victim assistance available for all provinces and territories. This legislation also made Canada free land for enslaved American Blacks. Figures released by Statistics Canada in 2017 revealed that hate crimes across the country rose for three consecutive years, with crimes targeting Black populations being the most common. **This episode originally aired Feb. 25, 2018. 8 He allegedly lured the girl with gifts, held her against her will, and forced her into the sex trade.21, According to a report by the South Asian Legal Clinic of Ontario (SALCO) released in 2013, 30 agencies surveyed in Ontario and Quebec reported 219 forced marriage cases between 2010 and 2012. Two-thirds of the interviewed workers also reported that they were recruited through an employment agency which charged high fees for organising their employment and documentation. As part of the act, slavery was abolished in most British colonies which resulted in around 800,000 slaves being freed in the Caribbean as well as South Africa and a small amount in Canada. [15, https://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/HUMA/Reports/RP8374415/humarp04/humarp04-e.pdf, https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/operational-bulletins-manuals/temporary-residents/permits/considerations-specific-victims-human-trafficking.html. In addition to losing their place of living, caregivers who would decide to move out of their employer’s home are required to obtain a new Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) and work permit,50 therefore making it difficult to change employers in practice.51 Additionally, the changes also resulted in live-out caregivers no longer being considered part of the LCP which meant they were no longer eligible to apply for permanent residence under the LCP.52, The Canadian government has criminalised human trafficking under section 279.01 and human trafficking of persons under the age of 18 years under section 279.011 of the criminal code. He has filed for radio, print and television, from the BBC and the CBC to Al Jazeera, the Guardian, the Toronto Star and Le Monde Diplomatique. Migrant Workers Alliance for Change & Coalition for Migrant Workers 2017. Black children are more likely to be in foster care. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada 2016. Therefore, true estimates are difficult to attain. The Canadian government publishes statistics on human trafficking convictions and identified cases. It has been noted that this is also due to a lack of knowledge and awareness surrounding labour trafficking in Canada. 16/10/2017. For a detailed methodology of how these products were identified, please refer to Appendix 3 in the 2018 GSI report. The Canadian government also announced plans to establish an Advisory Board on Responsible Business Conduct to advise the government and the CORE on responsible business conduct abroad.84, At the time of writing, the ground-breaking case of Araya v Nevsun Resources is before the Canadian courts.85 In 2008, Nevsun, a Canadian resources company, contracted the Eritrean government to build the Bisha mine and infrastructure, which involved the recruitment of local Eritrean workers. This gesture, they say, would pave the way for the kind of reconciliation that has begun with First Nations. Marwaha, S 2017, ‘’Anyone can be a victim’: Canadian high school girls being lured into sex trade’. All provinces should establish a coordinating body responsible for coordinating the implementation of the province’s strategy to combat human trafficking, similar to Ontario’s newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office. A statement by IBI group81 is not signed and includes details on a code of conduct. However, the Canadian government pledged during the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour to sign the ILO Forced Labour Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention of 1930 as soon as possible.54 Forced marriage is a criminal offence since 2015 according to section 293.1 of the criminal code.55, Victims of modern slavery are assisted through support services funded through the Justice Canada Victims Fund.56 However, dedicated funding for victim assistance reportedly varies across different provinces and territories.57 The Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) issues short-term Temporary Residents Permits (TRPs) (up to 180 days) to suspected victims of trafficking and longer-term TRPS (valid up to three years) to identified victims of trafficking to enable them to legally stay in Canada and receive health care and a work permit.58 In 2016, the government issued 67 TRPs, of which 26 were first-time permits and 41 were re-issues to victims who had previously received a permit.59. 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